Skin spots are treated only as an aesthetic issue by many people, when, in fact, they may be a manifestation of health problems. Therefore, any such skin change requires dermatological consultation. What is a skin spot and how do you distinguish it from other skin changes? Skin spots are distinguished by the following features:
- the spot is clearly separated from the surrounding skin
- the spot is distinguished only by a different coloration, not by a structure
- the skin spot is not palpable and lies in the same plane as the surrounding skin
Spots may have different colours, and the skin spot colour may provide a clue about the cause of its formation. The most frequent occurrence is that red skin spots that turn into a brown shade are associated with vascular disorders or skin congestion, blue spots are a consequence of insufficient blood supply to the skin lesion or change. White skin spots are associated with local depigmentation, and brown skin spots are the result of excessive skin pigmentation.
Skin spots may arise as a consequence of excessive skin congestion, often accompanied by inflammation. These may be red spots on the face, spots on the palms and in a different location, which under the influence of skin tightness temporarily fade. Considering the size and the extent of such stains, the following are distinguished:
- erythema spots associated with viral infections or having drug-like effects; are minor skin lesions which may coalesce
- erythema appearing temporarily under the influence of blood vessels, e.g. certain medications or emotions; erythema of a permanent nature is accompanied by inflammation in the course of photo allergic or phototoxic reaction; erythema is a skin lesion more extensive than erythematous lesions
- erythroderma is a very extensive inflammatory skin lesion and takes the form of red spots on the skin, it peels and flakes and is possibly itchy;
In contrast to the red spots on the skin associated with its congestion, areas of insufficient blood circulation are bluish, which results from the deoxygenation of blood. These types of changes can be generated by low temperatures, venous insufficiency or blood disorders (e.g., polyglobulism).
Another group of skin spots are those associated with vascular disorders, or more precisely they are the excessive expansion of blood vessels. These can be acquired or are congenital changes. Congenital skin changes are:
- angiomas, i.e. neoplastic lesions of brown, blue or red spots on the skin of the hand, face or torso
In turn, acquired changes are primarily teleangiectasia, vascular spider veins and senile hemangiomas.
Brown skin spots most are frequently a consequence of melanin, the accumulation of skin pigment. Brown spots on the face are often associated with hormonal changes in women and are referred to as chloasma (melanodermia), solar lentigines, in turn, are characteristic in older people who did not avoid exposure to the sun. Dark or black spots on the skin may accompany congenital metabolic diseases (e.g. alkaptonuria or melanosis). In turn white spots on the skin are accompanied by vitiligo, i.e. the dying of skin pigment cells. In turn, white skin spots are accompanied by vitiligo, i.e. skin pigment cells withering away.