Unsightly redness of the skin is considered a serious cosmetic problem, and sometimes also a health problem. The red skin shade results from the translucent blood vessels, which is most evident during excessive vasodilatation. Skin affected by the problem of dilated blood vessels and redness is called vascular skin. Initially, skin redness is transient and is associated with the effects of factors fostering the dilation of blood vessels. The most significant stimuli that foster the appearance of erythema on the face are:
– strong emotions or stress
– alcohol consumption
– drinking strong coffee or tea
– fluctuations in ambient temperature
– sun exposure
– topical use of glucocorticosteroids in the form of skin formulations
With time, such a transient erythema may become permanent and telangiectasias appear, i.e. permanently enlarged blood vessels. Their longer persistence generates inflammatory processes, pustules and papules, as well as soft tissue fibrosis. Ultimately, this may lead to the development of rosacea. Telangiectasia may also arise in the course of some diseases, for example, hemangioma in liver cirrhosis. Such vascular changes generated by the action of various factors are referred to as secondary telangiectasia. Inherited telangiectasias (primary) are associated with primary skin diseases. Women are the most exposed to the appearance of telangiectasia and capillary skin, which results from the influence of estrogens, relaxing on the muscles of the walls of blood vessels. The development of telangiectasia also fosters pregnancy.
Hemangiomas are a particular type of vascular lesions, i.e. more extensive skin lesions resulting from vasodilatation or excessive proliferation of endothelial cells. Most hemangiomas appear in infants and it disappears spontaneously by the age of 10. About 10% of hemangiomas are permanent changes. Hemanagiomas are usually only an aesthetic problem, although sometimes they can also prevent proper functioning. Flat hemangiomas are localized mostly on the face and neck and take the form of a red spot not exceeding the surface of the skin. Cavernous hemangiomas are located on the face, scalp and mucous membranes of the mouth; they have the character of blue-red round bumps. On the other hand, star-shaped hemangiomas are small bumps appearing on the face with radiating blood vessels.